[Gallery type = "rectangular" ids = "115,116,117,118,119,120"] Of Etruscan origin and founded, according to the legend of Porsenna, Lucoumone of Chiusi; Some documents and finds found in the fortress, make it trace the existence already in the IV-III century B.C. In Roman times it was the seat of an army placed to defend the consular roads. He was evangelized by St. Donato, Bishop of Arezzo in the fourth century. In the place of the present Church of the Madonna of San Biagio, there existed the Sancta Mater Ecclesia in Castle Pulliciano, so in a document of 715 in the Lombard period he knew his first development; In fact in some notarial deeds of the archive of the abbey of the SS. Salvatore Sull'amiata, there are documents among which one of 806 and the witnesses, all of Montepulciano, were priests, clerics, a doctor and a goldsmith, sign of a high level of civil and cultural. In the twelfth century, the Republic of Siena wanting to subdue Montepulciano, free and rich, began a series of wars, which the Poliziani faced with the help of Perugia and Orvieto, but more assiduously and with alternate outcomes, with the support of Florence. The fourteenth century was marked by strong contention for power among the major families; A relative stability was under the family of the sheep, which, divided within them to support Florence, Siena or Perugia, became lords of Valiano and tyrants of Montepulciano. In 1390 Montepulciano was firmly allied with Florence, which he was pressing to have a strategic cornerstone in the south of Siena. From the beginning of the fifteenth century to the middle of the sixteenth century, montepulcianohad its golden Age, punctued by political stability, cultural prestige and artistic flowering. The fifteenth century was the era of the humanist Bartolomeo Aragazzi, Apostolic Secretary of Pope Martin V and of the great poet Angelo Poliziano. An exceptional fervor of construction marked the sixteenth century: architects such as Antonio da Sangallo the elder, Jacopo Barozzi said Vignola, Baldassarre Peruzzi, Ippolito Scalza erected sumptuous patrician residences, splendid churches and various points of the city centre Were beauted. In 1511, the Poliziani, concluded the final peace with the Florentines, engraved on the door and the architrave of the Hall of the Council the following inscription: Recuperatio Libertatis, A.D. 1511. From 1559, with the submission of Siena to the Medici principality, Montepulciano lost part of the strategic and political relevance of the past, but retained its prestige. It was settled with historical Montepulciano families of the nobles, Tarugi, Contucci, Bellarmino, Ricci, Cervini, Benci, Cini, Cocconi and many others, who gave great men to the church, to the letters, to the arts and to the arms: A Supreme Pontiff, many Cardinals, many dozens of bishops, eminent prelates in great numbers and a great deal of men who were excellent in many disciplines. One of his most affectionate sons, Cardinal Giovanni Ricci, in 1561, obtained from Pope Pius IV, with the consent of the Grand Duke, that Montepulciano was decorated with the episcopal seat and the title of the city. Montepulciano thus obtained the elevation to Episcopal seat and the subsequent demolition of the ancient church was carried out to construct the imposing cathedral (1594) on the project of Ippolito Scalza and according to the principles of the Counter-Reformation, of which one of the Emeritus fathers was The Poliziano Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino. After the death of Cardinal Giovanni Ricci, Grand Duke Ferdinand left the Capitanati di Montepulciano and Pietrasanta to the free government of Grand Duchess Cristina di Lorena who remained at his death in 1636. The Grand Duchess gave much impetus to the construction of the new cathedral, where Bishop Antonio Cervini, in 1680 celebrated the pontificals first and was consecrated in 1712 by Bishop Francesco Maria Arrighi, who in 1714 consecrated the Church of Jesus. The long season Lorense marked for Montepulciano the beginning of a widespread economic and social recovery. The reclamation of the Valdichiana favoured the agricultural re-colonisation of the fertile valley floor; The consequent reorganization of the road system facilitated the commercial contacts. With the unification of Italy, Montepulciano (which then passed from the province of Arezzo to that of Siena) was imposed as the main agricultural market in the area, while the entrepreneurial activities skided towards the bottom of the valley, attracted by the railway (present since 1884 and the greater ease of connection with the emergent railway junction of Chiusi.